Paid To Popup MBBS MADE EASY: 2010-11-14

Friday, November 19, 2010

Anion gap metabolic acidosis: causes

A MUDPILE CAT

Alcohol


Methanol


Uremia



Diabetic ketoacidosis


Paraldehyde


Iron/ Isoniazid


Lactic acidosis


Ethylene glycol


Carbamazepine


Aspirin


Toluene
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History taking question

COMPLAINS


C-Complain:What is the problem?

O-Onset:what did it start?


M-Magnitude:is it mild,sever?


P-Pattern:Episodic,intermittent,constant?


L-Location:where it is?


A-Associated symptoms?


I-Improvement:what make it better?


N-Negetive Stimuli:What makes worse?


S-Specific Episode:In past.
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CAUSES OF CLUBBING

CLUBBING 


Cyanotic heart diseases and cystic fibrosis;

Lung cancer and lung abscess; 


Ulcerative colitis; 


Bronchiectasis;


Benign mesothelioma; 


Infective endocarditis, idiopathic pulmonary


fibrosis, idiopathic, and inherited; 


Neurogenic tumors; and


Gastrointestinal diseases (e.g., cirrhosis and regional enteritis).
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D/D HYPOGLYCAEMIA

HIPOGLICEMIA


H-Headtrauma/Hepatic failure (Fulminant)

I-Insulinomas


P-Physhosis


O-Overdose of insulin


G-Glycogen storage Disease/glucogan Deficiency


L-Lymphomas


I-Isolated ACTH deficiency


C-Carcinomas


E-Excess Exercise/Eating problem(starvation)


M-Medications (drugs)


I-Intoxication Of alcohol


A-Addision disease.
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Aortic stenosis - symptom

SAD



S-syncope


A-angina


D-dyspnea Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Causes of epilepsy

VITAMIN 


vascular

infective


trauma


autoimmune


metabolic


idiopathic


neoplastic
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ANKLE REFLEX ABSENT & EXTENSOR PLANTOR

FACTS 

 F-Friedrich Ataxia

A-Amyotropic lateral Sclerosis


C-conus lesions of spinal cord


T- tabes dorsalis


S-sub acute combined degeneration of spinal cord
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Severe Hypertension - treatment

Hypertensive Patientsshould have their BP reduced to Safe Not Normal Levels

Hydralazine

Phentolamine


Sodium Nitroprusside


Nitrate


Labetalol
 

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Causes of Mitral Stenosis other than RHD/Congenital

MRCS Edinberg 

Mucopolysaccharidosis

Rheumatoid arthritis


Carcinoid


SLE


Endocarditis-healed
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BEHCETS SYNDROME

HAVE A SUPERB GAIT 


H-HLA B5

A-Arthritis


V-Venous thromboembolism


E-Elevated ESR


A-Autoantibodies


S-Skin lesions


U-Ulcers that recur in oral cavity


P-Pathergy test


E-Eye lesions


R-Recurrent genital ulcers


B-Bain stem involvement(CNS-Behcets syndrome)


G-Glucocorticoids


A-Azathioprine


I-Interferon


T-Thalidomide
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Budd chiari syndrome -causes

"5 Ps" 

Polycythemia
Pills(OCPs)
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
Protein C, Protein S deficiency
Pregnancy
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Heart failure-Major criteria

RP PANICS

R-Rales

P-Positive hepatojugular reflex

P-Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

A-Acute pulmonary edema

N-Neck veins

I-Increased venous pressure

C-Cardiomegaly

S-S3  Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY HEMOSIDEROSIS- TRIAD

Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis ie IPH

charac. Triad is

I - Iron def. Anemia
P - Pulmonary alveolar infiltrates on chest X-ray!
H - Hemoptysis
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Tuberous sclerosis TRIAD

Characteristic triad of tuberous sclerosis..
3 S
tuberous Sclerosis

S - SEIZURES

S - SUBNORMAL
INTELLIGENCE

S- SEBACEUM adenoma

apart frm ths triad it s asso. wit another S!

Its SHAGREEN PATCH!!
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FANCONI anemia

FANCONI



F-fanconi anemia
A-aplastic anemia
N-normo (normocytic n normochromic)
Coni-congenital
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AXONAL DEGENERATION OF PERIPHERAL NERVE

MCH is a TOXIC Degree 

M Metabolic 

C CHARCOAT marie tooth 

H Hiv 

T Toxic 

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MI:clinical features

PULSE

 
P:persistent chest pain

U:upset stomach

L:light headedness

S:shortness of breath

E:excesive sweating
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Autosomal Dominant Diseases

FEW Hereditory Problems HAVE AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT Character

•F - Familial Hypercholestrolemia (LDL receptor defect Type IIa)
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
•E - Ehlor's Danlos (vascular type)
•W - Waardenburg Syndrome
•Hereditory - Hereditory Spherocytosis
•Problems - Peutz Jeghers Syndrome
Polydactyly
Pfeiffer Syndrome
•H - Huntington's Disease
Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy (HOCM)
•A - Alexander Disease
Antithrombin Deficiency
•V - Von Willebrand Disease
Von Hippel Lindau
•E - Ectrodactyly

•Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease
•Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase Deficiency (Inherited Porphyria Cutanea Tarda)
•Tuberous Sclerosis
•Osteogenesis Imperfecta (Except Type VII)
•Superoxide Dismutase Deficient (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)
•Osteopetrosis Type II (Adult type)
•Marfan Syndrome
•Achondroplasia
•Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

•Dystrophia Myotonica
•Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome
•Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
•Insomnia (Fatal Familial)
•Noonan Syndrome
•Acute Intermittent Porphyria
•Neurofibromatosis
•Treacher Collins Syndrome

•Character - Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome
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Causes of Pseudotumor cerebrii

WASH A Outdated Quilt

W-withdrawl of steroid
A-addison's ds
S-sle
H-hypoparathyroidism

A-vit A overdose
Outdated-Outdated tetracyclines
Quilt-quinolones.
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BILATERAL PAROTID ENLARGEMENT

MC SAD

M-MUMPS
C-CHRONIC PAN.
S-SJOGREN/ SARCOIDOSIS
A-AMYLOIDOSIS
D-DM
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papillary necrosis

 POST CARD

P Pyelonephritis
O Obstructive uropathy
S Sickle cell ds
T Tuberculosis
C Cirrhosis
A Analgesic nephropathy
R Renal artery thrombosis
D Diabetic nephropathy
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Wednesday, November 17, 2010

Causes of Cramps

Causes of Cramps are "CRAMP"-

Calcium level low
Respiratory Alkalosis
Metabolic acidosis
Magnesium level low
Porphyria Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Cardiovascular

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Rheumatology




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Cranial nerves - Sensory, motor and mixed


On Old Olymbus Towering Top A Finn And Germans Viewed Some Hopes

   1. Olfactory
   2. Optic
   3. Occulomotor
   4. Trochlear
   5. Trigeminal
   6. Abducens
   7. Facial
   8. Auditory
   9. Glossopharangeal
  10. Vagus
  11. Accessory spinal
  12. Hypoglossal

Some Say Money Matters, But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter More
S = Sensory, M = Motor, B = Both (sensory + motor) Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Posterior relations of the kidney



LM(NO)PQRST:

Lateral arcuate ligament,
Medial arcuate lig,
    (NOthing - Take a break :-)),
Psoas major,
Quadratus lumborum,
Rocky means diaphragm as diaphragm is like rock,
Subcoastal vessels,
Transverse abdominis. Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

MAO-A and MAO-B Isoenzyme locations


Monoamine oxidase (MAO) isoenzyme locations are as follows:

MAO-A is located in Alimentary tract (intestine) and Adrenergic peripheral structures.
MAO-B is located in Brain and Blood platelets. Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Henoch–Schönlein purpura

P's of HS Purpura:

Palpable Purpura
Pressure (Blanches on pressure)
Pruritis
Pain abdomen and joints
Positive Guaiac sign in faeces
Proteinuria
Prednisolone given in treatment
Platlet count may be raised but not low (DD: ITP) Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Fragile X Syndrome


M's of fragile-X Syndrome:

Male
Mental retardation
Macro orchidism
Mutation in FMR1 gene (caused by Methylation of part of chromosome)
Multiple CGG repeats
Maxillary excess (Long face)
Muscle tone decreased
Mothers (females) are obligatory carriers Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Drugs causing hepatic necrosis


Remember "Very Angry Hepatocytes":

Valproic acid
Acetaminophen
Halothane Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

MBBS

                               Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of surgery, or in Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated in various ways, viz. "BMBS", MB BChir, BM BCh, MB BCh, MB ChB, MBBS, BM, BMed, M.B.B.S. etc.), are the two first professional degrees awarded upon graduation from medical school in medicine and surgery by universities in various countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom. The naming suggests that they are two separate degrees; however, in practice, they are usually treated as one and awarded together. Usually, students who have graduated with a "Bachelor of Medicine" degree may also practice surgery, because it is equivalent to the "Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery" degree.

                               Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery or MBBS, as it is known in some countries, is the degree that is required to become a doctor in allopathic medicine. Thus MBBS is not the universal degree that is offered after completion of undergraduate medical courses in all the countries as there are various branches of medicine and medical degrees in different countries are known differently. For example, while most medical schools in Australia offer MBBS degree after completion of undergraduate medical courses, the University of New Castle offers B.Med after five years of undergraduate studies. In England also MBBS is only one of variants of range of medical degrees that are offered by different universities.

                              MB ChB, BM BCh, BM BS, BM, MB Bchir are some of the other degrees that are offered in UK. The system of medical education in USA, on the other hand, is very different and one needs to complete first a bachelor degree before undertaking medical studies.

                              MBBS is most popularly known as the degree required for becoming a doctor in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Therefore in this article we will discuss in brief the method of obtaining the MBBS degree in these countries.
                             

MBBS in India:
 
Although MBBS is not the only degree for becoming a doctor in India, as there are other branches of medicine like Ayurveda and Homeopathy, it is still the most coveted of all the medical degrees in India. For pursuing an MBBS degree in India one needs to complete 12 years of study and admission to most medical colleges in India are done on the basis of medical entrance test of various medial colleges. The Central board of Secondary education also conducts an All India Pre Medical Entrance Test for admission to 15% of the total seats for medical and dental courses in all medical and dental colleges run by the Union of India. For pursuing MBBS course in India, one needs to pass the higher secondary examination or its equivalent in the science stream with biology as a subject. Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner
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