Paid To Popup MBBS MADE EASY: 2010

Friday, December 31, 2010

Lumbar Spine Examination

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Cervical Spine Examination

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Wednesday, December 29, 2010

Shoulder Examination



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Monday, December 27, 2010

Secondary Causes of amenorrhea

SOAP

STRESS

OCP


ANOREXIA


PREGNANCY
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Risk factors for endometrial cancer

OLD AUNT

O=Obesity

L=Late menopause


D=Diabetes mellitus
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RLQ pain: brief female differential

AEIOU

Appendicitis/ Abscess

Ectopic pregnancy/ Endometriosis


Inflammatory disease (pelvic)/ IBD

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Oral contraceptive complications: warning signs

 ACHES

Abdominal pain

Chest pain


Headache (severe)

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Oral contraceptives: side effects

CONTRACEPTIVES

Cholestatic jaundice

Oedema (corneal)


Nasal congestion


Thyroid dysfunction


Raised BP

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Absolute C/I for IUCD

PLEASE DONT EVER PUT CONTRACEPTIVES

Please-Pregnancy(suspected/confirmed)

Dont-DUB


Ever-Ectopic


Put-PID


Contraceptive-Ca cervix
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Post menopausal symptoms

Dry HOLE

Dry Vagina

Hot flashes


Osteoporosis


Loss of libido


Emotional lability
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Drugs decreasing blood loss in fibroid

A Major Gynae OPD

Antifibrinolytics

Mifepristone

GnRH agonist

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ABDOMINAL PAIN: Causes during pregnancy

LARA CROFT

Labour

Abruption of placenta


Rupture (eg:ectopic/uterus)


Abortion

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PID COMPLICATIONS

I FACE PID

Infertility

Fitz-hugh-curtis syndrome


Abscesses


Chronic pelvic pain


Ectopic pregnancy

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Monday, December 20, 2010

Examination of Breast Lump

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Examination of Scrotal Swelling

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Examination of Inguino Scrotal Swelling


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Examination of THYROID SWELLING


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Examination of VARICOSE VEINS

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Examination of ULCER


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Examination of An Intra-abdominal Lump


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Friday, December 17, 2010

GI bleeding: causes

ABCDEFGHI 




Angiodysplasia

Bowel cancer

Colitis

Diverticulitis/ Duodenal ulcer

Epitaxis/ Esophageal (cancer, esophagitis, varices)

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Post-operative complications (immediate)

Post-op PROBS


Pain

Primary haemorrhage

Reactionary haemorrhage

Oliguria

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Differential Diagnosis : scrotum swelling

THE THEATRES


Torsion

Hernia

Epididymytis, orchitis

Trauma

Hydrocoele, varicocele, hematoma

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Wednesday, December 15, 2010

IUGR: causes

IUGR

Inherited: chromosomal and genetic disorders

Uterus: placental insufficency

General: maternal malnutrition, smoking

Rubella and other congenital infecton Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Fetus: cardinal movements of fetus

Don't Forget I Enjoy Really Expensive Equipment

Descent

Flexion

Interal rotation

Extension

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Alpha-fetoprotein: causes for increased maternal serum AFP during pregnancy

Increased Maternal Serum Alpha Feto Protein

Intestinal obstruction

Multiple gestation/ Miscalculation of gestational age/ Myeloschisis

Spina bifida cystica

Anencephaly/ Abdominal wall defect

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Post-partum haemorrhage (PPH): causes

4 'T's

Tissue (retained placenta)

Tone (uterine atony)

Trauma (traumatic delivery, episiotomy)

Thrombin (coagulation disorders, DIC) Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Oral contraceptive complications: warning signs

ACHES







Abdominal pain

Chest pain

Headache (severe)

Eye (blurred vision)

Sharp leg pain

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Tuesday, December 14, 2010

clinical features of Septic Abortion

5 P's

P- Pyrexia

P- Pain in abdomen


P- Pulse rate increase: 100-200/min


P- Purulent vaginal discharge


P- Pelvic findings: Patulous os or a boggy feel of the uterus
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Monday, December 13, 2010

Causes of acute & reversible urinary incontinence

DRIP


D: Delirium

R: Restricted mobility, retention


I: Infection, inflammation, impaction (fecal)


P: Polyuria, pharmaceuticals
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Etiology of CA Tongue

6-S's

Spices

Spirits


Smoking


Sharp Pointed Teeth

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Indications for stone removal



POLICE




Passive - Stone is stationary

Obstruction - Stone causes obstruction


Large - stone too large to pass


Infection

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Small Bowel Obstruction

SHAVIT

S tone (gallstone ileus)

H ernia


A dhesions


V olvulus

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Urinary Incontinence- causes

U SOFT


Urge

Stress

Overflow


Funcional

Total Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Scrotum masses

SHOVE IT

Spermatocele

Hydrocele/ Haematocele


Orchitis


Varicocele

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Peutz Jeghers Syndrome

PJ

P = Polyps

J =  Jejunal



Peutz Jeghers syndrome is characterised by Jejunal polyps Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

sclerosing agents

APES are QUte


A = Absolute alcohol

P = Polidocanal


E = Ethanolamine oleate

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Friday, December 10, 2010

saints triad

D,G,H



D-diveticulosis

G-gall stones.

H-hiatus hernia.
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Sign of Acute Limb Ischaemia

7 Ps and 2 Ms


7 Ps
1) Pain


2) Pallor


3) Pulseless


4) Paraesthesia


5) Paralysis


6) Perishing cold


7) Pistol shot onset




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Hemobilia - Triad

MOB

Malena


Obstructive jaundice


Biliary colic
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Aneurysm : types

MAD SCAB





MYCOTIC


ATHEROSCLEROTIC


DISSECTING


SYPHILITIC



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Layers of scalp

SCALP

S= Skin


C= Connective tissue (dense)


A= Aponeurosis


L= Loose connective tissue


P= Pericranium
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Appendicitis - findings

OH Mr Peter is Bold ,Rude and Rough


1.OBTURATOR SIGN


2.HYPERAESTHESIA IN SHERRENS TRIANGLE


3.MC-BURNEYS TENDERNESS


4.PSOAS SIGN


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Thursday, December 9, 2010

PERFORATOR VEINS

CBD from below upwards


C- cockette perforator-ankle

B-boyd perforator-knee


D-dodd perforator- mid thigh
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SARCOMAS THAT SPREAD VIA LYMPHNODES

SCREAM

SYNOVIAL CELL SARCOMA

CLEAR CELL SARCOMA


RHABDOMYO SARCOMA

EPITHELIAL SARCOMA

  

ANGIOSARCOMA

MALIGNANT FIBROUS HISTIOCYTOMA



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Gardner syndrome : feature

DEAF


D.............Desmoid tumour

E.............Epididymal cyst


A............Ampulary carcinoma


F.............Fibroma



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Wednesday, December 8, 2010

BRCA -1

OCP

O-Ovarian ca

C-Colorectal ca


P-Prostate ca
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Causes of DVT

THROMBOSIS


Trauma,

Hormones-OCP'S


Road traffic accidents,


Operations-cholecystectomy,


Malignancy,


Blood disorders-polycythemia,


Obesity,Old age,Orthopedic surgery,


Serious illness,


Immobilisation,


Splenctomy.
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Cold abscess

MALT


Madura foot.

Actinomycosis.


Leprosy.


Tuberculosis.
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spleen rupture

ABCDEFG

Anaemia

BP low


Cold periphery


Distended abdomen


Elevated pulse


Frenic nerve iritatio-kehr sign


Guarding rigidity
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Pierre Robin Syndrome(PRS)

PRS


P- Palate cleft only

R- Respiratory obstruction(cyanotic spells), Retracted Tongue


S- Small mandible(micrognathia)
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Indications 4 dialysis

AEIOU


ACID BASE PROBLEMS

ELECTROLTYE PROBLEMS


INTOXICATION


OVERLOAD[FLUID]


UREMIC SYSTOMS
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Acute pancreatitis causes

GET SMASHeD Pancreatitis 


G-Gall stone

E-Ethanol


T-Trauma


S-Steroid


M-Mumps


A-Autoimmune


S-Scorpion bite


H-Hypercalcaemia


D-Drugs like sulfa drugs


P-Post splenectomy
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lymphatic spread of sarcomas

RACE for MS

R habdomyosarcoma

A ngiosarcoma


C lear cell sarcoma


E pithelial sarcoma


M alignant histiosarcoma


S ynovial sarcoma
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Indications for Tonsillectomy

HARMS

H : Hypertrophy with hoarseness

A : Abscess (Peritonsillar - Quinsy)


R : Recurrent sore throat


M : Malignancy is suspected


S : Seizures (Febrile seizures due to Tonsillitis)
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Tumors with Bone Mets

All kinds of malignant tumors probably like metastsizing to bone.



Alimentary 

Kidney 


Ovarian 


Malignant Melanoma


Thyroid 


Prostate 


Lung 


Multiple Myeloma 


Testis 


Breast
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Lynch syndrome

CEO

C-colon carcinoma
E-endometrial carcinoma
O-ovarian carcinoma
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Tuesday, December 7, 2010

Adrenal: C 21 Hydroxylase Deficiency

INK For Pen of Dean

INK - INcrease in K

For Pen - Female Pseudohermaphrodite 


Dean DEcrease in Na hence fall in Blood Pressure

and 17 hydroxylase is exactly opposite

Decrease in K


Male pseudohermaphrodite


Increase in Na (Hence increase in Blood pressure too)
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drugs not given in HOCM

DNB

D - DIURETICS, DIGOXIN

N - NITRATES 


B - BETA AGONISTS
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EDWARDS SYNDROME : Characteristics

EDWARDS

Eighteen (trisomy)


Digit overlapping flexion


Wide head


Absent intellect (mentally retarded)


Rocker-bottom feet


Diseased heart


Small lower jaw
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Sunday, December 5, 2010

Villi of small Intestine

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Tongue with taste bud

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Red Blood Cell

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Purkinje Neurons

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Lung alveoli

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Human hair cells

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Blood clot

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6 day old human embryo

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Friday, December 3, 2010

Causes of Osteoperosis

ACCESS


A lcohol

C orticosteroids


C alcium (low intake)


E ostrogen deficiency


S moking


S edentary Lifestyle
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c/f of HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE

ABCDE

A- AFFECTIVE DISORDER, ABUSE PROBLEMS, ANTI-SOCIAL

B- BEHAVIOURAL DISTURBANCES


C- CHOREA


D- DEMENTIA(late feature), DEPRESSION(schizophreniform)


E- EPILEPTIC(seizures) AND EXTRAPYRAMIDAL (parkinsonian)
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Thursday, December 2, 2010

HYPERTHYROIDISM : signs and symptoms

THYROIDISM 


TREMOR

HEART RATE UP


YAWNING(FATIGUED)


RESTLESSNESS


OLIGOMENORRHEA/AMENORRHEA


INTOLERANCE TO HEAT


DIARRHEA


IRRITABILITY


SWEATING


MUSCLE WASTING/WEIGHT LOSS
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CAUSES OF REDUCED INTESTINAL MOTILITY

PAD

P-PARKINSONISM

A-AMYLOIDOSIS

D-DIABETES
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Turners Syndrome

CLOWNS




C = Cardiac Abnormality; COARCTATION

L = Lymphedema (due to poor lymphatics)


O = Ovaries not developed = amenorrhoea/sterility 


W = Webbed Neck


N =Nipples widely spaced


S=SHORT STATURE

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charcot's triad of multiple sclerosis

SIN





S-staccato speech


I-intentional tremors


N-nystagmus
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Vomiting : Non GI causes

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I 




A cute renal failure

B rain (increased ICP)


C ardiac (inferior MI)


D KA


E ars (labyrinthitis)


F oreign substances (Tylenol)


G laucoma


H yperemesis gravidarum


I nfections (pyelonephritis, meningitis)
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Hypercalcemia

SHAMPOO DIRT






S arcoidosis

H yperparathypoidism, Hyperthyroidism


A lkali-milk syndrome


M etastases, Myeloma


P aget disease


O steogenesis imperfecta


O steoporosis


vitamin D toxicity


I mmobility


R TA


T hiazides
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Causes of A-Fibrillation/Flutter

HEART


H= cHf, other cardiomyopathies

E= Enlargement of the atria


A= Alcohol binge drinking


R= Rheumatic heart disease


T= hyperThyroid
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Back pain causes

DISK MASS 


Degeneration (DJD, osteoporosis, spondylosis)

Infection (UTI, PID, Pott's disease, osteomyelitis, prostatitis)/ Injury, fracture or compression fracture


Spondylitis (ankylosing spondyloarthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis, Reiters, SLE)


Kidney (stones, infarction, infection)


Multiple myeloma/ Metastasis (from cancers of breast, kidney, lung, prostate, thyroid)


Abdominal pain (referred to the back)/ Aneurysm


Skin (herpes zoster)/ Strain/ Scoliosis and lordosis


Slipped disk/ Spondylolisthesis

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Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Apex beat: differential for impalpable apex beat

DOPES 


Dextrocardia

Obesity


Pericarditis or pericardial tamponade


Emphysema


Sinus inversus/ Student incompetence
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Atrial fibrillation: causes

PIRATES

Pulmonary: PE, COPD

Iatrogenic


Rheumatic heart: mirtral regurgitation


Atherosclerotic: MI, CAD


Thyroid: hyperthyroid


Endocarditis


Sick sinus syndrome
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ECG: T wave inversion causes

INVERT 


Ischemia

Normality [esp. young, black]


Ventricular hypertrophy


Ectopic foci [eg calcified plaques]


RBBB, LBBB


Treatments [digoxin]
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Murmurs: innocent murmur

8 S
Soft

Systolic


Short


Sounds (S1 & S2) normal


Symptomless


Special tests normal (X-ray, EKG)


Standing/ Sitting (vary with position)


Sternal depression
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Depressed ST-segment: causes

DEPRESSED ST 

Drooping valve (MVP)

Enlargement of LV with strain


Potassium loss (hypokalemia)


Reciprocal ST- depression (in I/W AMI)


Embolism in lungs (pulmonary embolism)


Subendocardial ischemia



Subendocardial infarct


Encephalon haemorrhage (intracranial haemorrhage)


Dilated cardiomyopathy


Shock


Toxicity of digitalis, quinidine
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Jugular venous pressure (JVP) elevation: causes

HOLI


Heart failure

Obstruction of venea cava


Lymphatic enlargement - supraclavicular


Intra-Thoracic pressure increase
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CHF: Causes of exacerbation

FAILURE 


Forgot medication

Arrhythmia/ Anaemia


Ischemia/ Infarction/ Infection


Lifestyle: taken too much salt


Upregulation of CO: pregnancy, hyperthyroidism


Renal failure


Embolism: pulmonary
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ST elevation causes in ECG

ELEVATION 





Electrolytes

LBBB


Early repolarization


Ventricular hypertrophy


Aneurysm


Treatment (eg pericardiocentesis)


Injury (AMI, contusion)


Osborne waves (hypothermia)


Non-occlusive vasospasm
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Pericarditis: Causes

CARDIAC RIND 


Collagen vascular disease

Aortic aneurysm


Radiation


Drugs (such as hydralazine)


Infections


Acute renal failure


Cardiac infarction


Rheumatic fever


Injury


Neoplasms


Dressler's syndrome
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Fanconis anemia

FANCONIS


F facial microcephaly

A abnormal testis n kidneys


N neutropenia


C cafe au lait 


O ocular abnormality


N no thumbs n radius


I increased risk of AML 


S skin abnormality
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Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Causes of upper lobe fibrosis

SCAR




S- Sarcoidosis

C- Coal workers pneumonconiosis


A- Ankolysing Spndolitis


R- Radiation




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Pin point pupils

3P 


organPhosphorus poisoning

Pontine haemorrhage


oPium poisoning
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ACUTE PANCREATITIS

GET SMASHED 





Gall stone

Ethanol

Trauma

Steroid


Mumps

Autoimmunenodosa, ascaris infection

Scorpionvenom


Hypertriglyceridemia (hyperchylomicronaemia, hypercalcaemia)

ERCP 


Drugs ( azathioprime, mesalazine, bendroflumethiazide, frusemide, sodium valproate ) Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Causes of moderate splenomegaly

SPLEEN 


Subacute bacterial endocarditis

Portal hypertension


Lupus and other autoimmune


EBV + other viruses (HIV, CMV)


Endemic fever (typhoid) and typhus


Non-treponemal spirochaetes (leptospirosis, borreliosis), syphilis, and trypanosomiasis (a bit of a weak grouping I know, but they look vaguely similar!)
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Causes of massive splenomegaly

MASSIVE 


Myelofibrosis/myeloproliferative (CML, PRV)/CLL

Amyloidosis + other infiltrative (Gaucher's, sarcoid)


Splenic hydatid cyst


Schistosomiasis


Immune haemolysis/other haemolysis/haemoglobinopathies


Visceral Leishmaniasis


Endemic malaria (hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly)
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Neurofibromatosis type 1

VON RECKLINGHAUSEN has 17 letters 

So chromosome 17
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TB- Conditions favoring reactivation

CM Hates HIS MD 


Chronic renal failure

Malnutrition


HIV infection


Hemophilia


Immunosuppression


Silicosis


Malignancies


Diabetes
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ARDS Aetiology

Narcotic SIDED PAM 






Narcotics

Shock


Inhalation- ammonia, chlorine smoke


Drugs- Barbiturates, thiazides


Emboli- fat, air, amniotic fluid


DIC


Pulmonary infection


Aspiration- water, vomitus


Misc- acute pancreatitis, trauma, sle, raised ICP




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Causes of Transudative plural fluid

Super Nova is Pulling My congested Cirrhotic Liver 




Superier vana caval syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome


Pul. emboli


Myxedema


CCF(MC)


Cirrosis liver
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Anaphylaxis treatments

ACH{ACETYLCHONE} 




A-ADRENALINE[O.5MG IM]
C-CHLORPHENAMINE[0.5 times20=10mg iv]
H-HYDROCORTISONE[10times20=200mg iv]

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Monday, November 29, 2010

UMN LMN Lesions

UMN lesion - WISE 


W Weakness

I Increased tendon reflexes


S Spasticity


E Extensor plantar response



LMN lesion -  "World Federation of Waste Land Hikers"

Weakness

Fasciculation


Wasting


Loss/diminished reflexes


Hypotonia
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Causes of splenomegaly

CHICAGO

Causes of splenomegaly: Cancer 

Haematological malignancy 

Infection 

Congestion (portal hypertension) 

Autoimmune 

Glycogen storage disease 

Other (amyloidosis) Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

SLE Criteria

SOAP BRAIN MD

( 4 or more of the 11 required for diagnosis )


Serositis

Oral ulcers


Arthritis: non- erosive, peripheral polyarthritis


Photophobia


Blood dyscrasias: haemolytic anaemia, picture of bone marrow suppression


Renal involvement: proteinuria, red cell casts


ANA positive


Immunological abnormalities: anti- DNA,anti-Sm, Anti- phopholipid ab


Neurological involvement

Malar rash


Discoid rash



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HORNER'S SYNDROME

MAPLE

M : MIOSIS

A : ANHIDROSIS


P : PTOSIS


L : LOSS OF CILIOSPINAL REFLEX.


E : ENOPHTHALMOS
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HYPOGLYCEMIC DRUGS

ISSPR ( Pak. Army's) 


I: Insulin

S: Sulphonylureases


S: Salicylates


P: Propranolol


R: Sodium valpRoate


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Hyperglycemic Drugs

BITE CD 



B: Beta-2 agonists


I: Iron


T: Theophylline


E: Caffeine


C: Corticosteroids

D: Diuretics (thiazide)

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Wernicke's triad

COAT



Confusion

Opthalmoplegia

Ataxia due to

Thiamine deficiency Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Aortic regurgitation - causes

CREAM




Congenital

Rheumatic damage


Endocarditis


Aortic dissection/ Aortic root dilatation


Marfan’s syndrome

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Friday, November 19, 2010

Anion gap metabolic acidosis: causes

A MUDPILE CAT

Alcohol


Methanol


Uremia



Diabetic ketoacidosis


Paraldehyde


Iron/ Isoniazid


Lactic acidosis


Ethylene glycol


Carbamazepine


Aspirin


Toluene
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History taking question

COMPLAINS


C-Complain:What is the problem?

O-Onset:what did it start?


M-Magnitude:is it mild,sever?


P-Pattern:Episodic,intermittent,constant?


L-Location:where it is?


A-Associated symptoms?


I-Improvement:what make it better?


N-Negetive Stimuli:What makes worse?


S-Specific Episode:In past.
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CAUSES OF CLUBBING

CLUBBING 


Cyanotic heart diseases and cystic fibrosis;

Lung cancer and lung abscess; 


Ulcerative colitis; 


Bronchiectasis;


Benign mesothelioma; 


Infective endocarditis, idiopathic pulmonary


fibrosis, idiopathic, and inherited; 


Neurogenic tumors; and


Gastrointestinal diseases (e.g., cirrhosis and regional enteritis).
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D/D HYPOGLYCAEMIA

HIPOGLICEMIA


H-Headtrauma/Hepatic failure (Fulminant)

I-Insulinomas


P-Physhosis


O-Overdose of insulin


G-Glycogen storage Disease/glucogan Deficiency


L-Lymphomas


I-Isolated ACTH deficiency


C-Carcinomas


E-Excess Exercise/Eating problem(starvation)


M-Medications (drugs)


I-Intoxication Of alcohol


A-Addision disease.
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Aortic stenosis - symptom

SAD



S-syncope


A-angina


D-dyspnea Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Causes of epilepsy

VITAMIN 


vascular

infective


trauma


autoimmune


metabolic


idiopathic


neoplastic
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ANKLE REFLEX ABSENT & EXTENSOR PLANTOR

FACTS 

 F-Friedrich Ataxia

A-Amyotropic lateral Sclerosis


C-conus lesions of spinal cord


T- tabes dorsalis


S-sub acute combined degeneration of spinal cord
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Severe Hypertension - treatment

Hypertensive Patientsshould have their BP reduced to Safe Not Normal Levels

Hydralazine

Phentolamine


Sodium Nitroprusside


Nitrate


Labetalol
 

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Causes of Mitral Stenosis other than RHD/Congenital

MRCS Edinberg 

Mucopolysaccharidosis

Rheumatoid arthritis


Carcinoid


SLE


Endocarditis-healed
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BEHCETS SYNDROME

HAVE A SUPERB GAIT 


H-HLA B5

A-Arthritis


V-Venous thromboembolism


E-Elevated ESR


A-Autoantibodies


S-Skin lesions


U-Ulcers that recur in oral cavity


P-Pathergy test


E-Eye lesions


R-Recurrent genital ulcers


B-Bain stem involvement(CNS-Behcets syndrome)


G-Glucocorticoids


A-Azathioprine


I-Interferon


T-Thalidomide
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Budd chiari syndrome -causes

"5 Ps" 

Polycythemia
Pills(OCPs)
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
Protein C, Protein S deficiency
Pregnancy
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Heart failure-Major criteria

RP PANICS

R-Rales

P-Positive hepatojugular reflex

P-Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

A-Acute pulmonary edema

N-Neck veins

I-Increased venous pressure

C-Cardiomegaly

S-S3  Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY HEMOSIDEROSIS- TRIAD

Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis ie IPH

charac. Triad is

I - Iron def. Anemia
P - Pulmonary alveolar infiltrates on chest X-ray!
H - Hemoptysis
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Tuberous sclerosis TRIAD

Characteristic triad of tuberous sclerosis..
3 S
tuberous Sclerosis

S - SEIZURES

S - SUBNORMAL
INTELLIGENCE

S- SEBACEUM adenoma

apart frm ths triad it s asso. wit another S!

Its SHAGREEN PATCH!!
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FANCONI anemia

FANCONI



F-fanconi anemia
A-aplastic anemia
N-normo (normocytic n normochromic)
Coni-congenital
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AXONAL DEGENERATION OF PERIPHERAL NERVE

MCH is a TOXIC Degree 

M Metabolic 

C CHARCOAT marie tooth 

H Hiv 

T Toxic 

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MI:clinical features

PULSE

 
P:persistent chest pain

U:upset stomach

L:light headedness

S:shortness of breath

E:excesive sweating
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Autosomal Dominant Diseases

FEW Hereditory Problems HAVE AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT Character

•F - Familial Hypercholestrolemia (LDL receptor defect Type IIa)
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
•E - Ehlor's Danlos (vascular type)
•W - Waardenburg Syndrome
•Hereditory - Hereditory Spherocytosis
•Problems - Peutz Jeghers Syndrome
Polydactyly
Pfeiffer Syndrome
•H - Huntington's Disease
Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy (HOCM)
•A - Alexander Disease
Antithrombin Deficiency
•V - Von Willebrand Disease
Von Hippel Lindau
•E - Ectrodactyly

•Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease
•Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase Deficiency (Inherited Porphyria Cutanea Tarda)
•Tuberous Sclerosis
•Osteogenesis Imperfecta (Except Type VII)
•Superoxide Dismutase Deficient (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)
•Osteopetrosis Type II (Adult type)
•Marfan Syndrome
•Achondroplasia
•Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

•Dystrophia Myotonica
•Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome
•Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
•Insomnia (Fatal Familial)
•Noonan Syndrome
•Acute Intermittent Porphyria
•Neurofibromatosis
•Treacher Collins Syndrome

•Character - Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome
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Causes of Pseudotumor cerebrii

WASH A Outdated Quilt

W-withdrawl of steroid
A-addison's ds
S-sle
H-hypoparathyroidism

A-vit A overdose
Outdated-Outdated tetracyclines
Quilt-quinolones.
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BILATERAL PAROTID ENLARGEMENT

MC SAD

M-MUMPS
C-CHRONIC PAN.
S-SJOGREN/ SARCOIDOSIS
A-AMYLOIDOSIS
D-DM
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papillary necrosis

 POST CARD

P Pyelonephritis
O Obstructive uropathy
S Sickle cell ds
T Tuberculosis
C Cirrhosis
A Analgesic nephropathy
R Renal artery thrombosis
D Diabetic nephropathy
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Wednesday, November 17, 2010

Causes of Cramps

Causes of Cramps are "CRAMP"-

Calcium level low
Respiratory Alkalosis
Metabolic acidosis
Magnesium level low
Porphyria Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Cardiovascular

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Rheumatology




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Cranial nerves - Sensory, motor and mixed


On Old Olymbus Towering Top A Finn And Germans Viewed Some Hopes

   1. Olfactory
   2. Optic
   3. Occulomotor
   4. Trochlear
   5. Trigeminal
   6. Abducens
   7. Facial
   8. Auditory
   9. Glossopharangeal
  10. Vagus
  11. Accessory spinal
  12. Hypoglossal

Some Say Money Matters, But My Brother Says Big Brains Matter More
S = Sensory, M = Motor, B = Both (sensory + motor) Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Posterior relations of the kidney



LM(NO)PQRST:

Lateral arcuate ligament,
Medial arcuate lig,
    (NOthing - Take a break :-)),
Psoas major,
Quadratus lumborum,
Rocky means diaphragm as diaphragm is like rock,
Subcoastal vessels,
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MAO-A and MAO-B Isoenzyme locations


Monoamine oxidase (MAO) isoenzyme locations are as follows:

MAO-A is located in Alimentary tract (intestine) and Adrenergic peripheral structures.
MAO-B is located in Brain and Blood platelets. Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Henoch–Schönlein purpura

P's of HS Purpura:

Palpable Purpura
Pressure (Blanches on pressure)
Pruritis
Pain abdomen and joints
Positive Guaiac sign in faeces
Proteinuria
Prednisolone given in treatment
Platlet count may be raised but not low (DD: ITP) Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Fragile X Syndrome


M's of fragile-X Syndrome:

Male
Mental retardation
Macro orchidism
Mutation in FMR1 gene (caused by Methylation of part of chromosome)
Multiple CGG repeats
Maxillary excess (Long face)
Muscle tone decreased
Mothers (females) are obligatory carriers Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Drugs causing hepatic necrosis


Remember "Very Angry Hepatocytes":

Valproic acid
Acetaminophen
Halothane Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

MBBS

                               Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of surgery, or in Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated in various ways, viz. "BMBS", MB BChir, BM BCh, MB BCh, MB ChB, MBBS, BM, BMed, M.B.B.S. etc.), are the two first professional degrees awarded upon graduation from medical school in medicine and surgery by universities in various countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom. The naming suggests that they are two separate degrees; however, in practice, they are usually treated as one and awarded together. Usually, students who have graduated with a "Bachelor of Medicine" degree may also practice surgery, because it is equivalent to the "Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery" degree.

                               Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery or MBBS, as it is known in some countries, is the degree that is required to become a doctor in allopathic medicine. Thus MBBS is not the universal degree that is offered after completion of undergraduate medical courses in all the countries as there are various branches of medicine and medical degrees in different countries are known differently. For example, while most medical schools in Australia offer MBBS degree after completion of undergraduate medical courses, the University of New Castle offers B.Med after five years of undergraduate studies. In England also MBBS is only one of variants of range of medical degrees that are offered by different universities.

                              MB ChB, BM BCh, BM BS, BM, MB Bchir are some of the other degrees that are offered in UK. The system of medical education in USA, on the other hand, is very different and one needs to complete first a bachelor degree before undertaking medical studies.

                              MBBS is most popularly known as the degree required for becoming a doctor in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Therefore in this article we will discuss in brief the method of obtaining the MBBS degree in these countries.
                             

MBBS in India:
 
Although MBBS is not the only degree for becoming a doctor in India, as there are other branches of medicine like Ayurveda and Homeopathy, it is still the most coveted of all the medical degrees in India. For pursuing an MBBS degree in India one needs to complete 12 years of study and admission to most medical colleges in India are done on the basis of medical entrance test of various medial colleges. The Central board of Secondary education also conducts an All India Pre Medical Entrance Test for admission to 15% of the total seats for medical and dental courses in all medical and dental colleges run by the Union of India. For pursuing MBBS course in India, one needs to pass the higher secondary examination or its equivalent in the science stream with biology as a subject. Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner
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