Paid To Popup MBBS MADE EASY: 2010-11-28

Friday, December 3, 2010

Causes of Osteoperosis

ACCESS


A lcohol

C orticosteroids


C alcium (low intake)


E ostrogen deficiency


S moking


S edentary Lifestyle
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c/f of HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE

ABCDE

A- AFFECTIVE DISORDER, ABUSE PROBLEMS, ANTI-SOCIAL

B- BEHAVIOURAL DISTURBANCES


C- CHOREA


D- DEMENTIA(late feature), DEPRESSION(schizophreniform)


E- EPILEPTIC(seizures) AND EXTRAPYRAMIDAL (parkinsonian)
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Thursday, December 2, 2010

HYPERTHYROIDISM : signs and symptoms

THYROIDISM 


TREMOR

HEART RATE UP


YAWNING(FATIGUED)


RESTLESSNESS


OLIGOMENORRHEA/AMENORRHEA


INTOLERANCE TO HEAT


DIARRHEA


IRRITABILITY


SWEATING


MUSCLE WASTING/WEIGHT LOSS
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CAUSES OF REDUCED INTESTINAL MOTILITY

PAD

P-PARKINSONISM

A-AMYLOIDOSIS

D-DIABETES
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Turners Syndrome

CLOWNS




C = Cardiac Abnormality; COARCTATION

L = Lymphedema (due to poor lymphatics)


O = Ovaries not developed = amenorrhoea/sterility 


W = Webbed Neck


N =Nipples widely spaced


S=SHORT STATURE

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charcot's triad of multiple sclerosis

SIN





S-staccato speech


I-intentional tremors


N-nystagmus
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Vomiting : Non GI causes

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I 




A cute renal failure

B rain (increased ICP)


C ardiac (inferior MI)


D KA


E ars (labyrinthitis)


F oreign substances (Tylenol)


G laucoma


H yperemesis gravidarum


I nfections (pyelonephritis, meningitis)
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Hypercalcemia

SHAMPOO DIRT






S arcoidosis

H yperparathypoidism, Hyperthyroidism


A lkali-milk syndrome


M etastases, Myeloma


P aget disease


O steogenesis imperfecta


O steoporosis


vitamin D toxicity


I mmobility


R TA


T hiazides
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Causes of A-Fibrillation/Flutter

HEART


H= cHf, other cardiomyopathies

E= Enlargement of the atria


A= Alcohol binge drinking


R= Rheumatic heart disease


T= hyperThyroid
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Back pain causes

DISK MASS 


Degeneration (DJD, osteoporosis, spondylosis)

Infection (UTI, PID, Pott's disease, osteomyelitis, prostatitis)/ Injury, fracture or compression fracture


Spondylitis (ankylosing spondyloarthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis, Reiters, SLE)


Kidney (stones, infarction, infection)


Multiple myeloma/ Metastasis (from cancers of breast, kidney, lung, prostate, thyroid)


Abdominal pain (referred to the back)/ Aneurysm


Skin (herpes zoster)/ Strain/ Scoliosis and lordosis


Slipped disk/ Spondylolisthesis

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Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Apex beat: differential for impalpable apex beat

DOPES 


Dextrocardia

Obesity


Pericarditis or pericardial tamponade


Emphysema


Sinus inversus/ Student incompetence
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Atrial fibrillation: causes

PIRATES

Pulmonary: PE, COPD

Iatrogenic


Rheumatic heart: mirtral regurgitation


Atherosclerotic: MI, CAD


Thyroid: hyperthyroid


Endocarditis


Sick sinus syndrome
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ECG: T wave inversion causes

INVERT 


Ischemia

Normality [esp. young, black]


Ventricular hypertrophy


Ectopic foci [eg calcified plaques]


RBBB, LBBB


Treatments [digoxin]
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Murmurs: innocent murmur

8 S
Soft

Systolic


Short


Sounds (S1 & S2) normal


Symptomless


Special tests normal (X-ray, EKG)


Standing/ Sitting (vary with position)


Sternal depression
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Depressed ST-segment: causes

DEPRESSED ST 

Drooping valve (MVP)

Enlargement of LV with strain


Potassium loss (hypokalemia)


Reciprocal ST- depression (in I/W AMI)


Embolism in lungs (pulmonary embolism)


Subendocardial ischemia



Subendocardial infarct


Encephalon haemorrhage (intracranial haemorrhage)


Dilated cardiomyopathy


Shock


Toxicity of digitalis, quinidine
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Jugular venous pressure (JVP) elevation: causes

HOLI


Heart failure

Obstruction of venea cava


Lymphatic enlargement - supraclavicular


Intra-Thoracic pressure increase
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CHF: Causes of exacerbation

FAILURE 


Forgot medication

Arrhythmia/ Anaemia


Ischemia/ Infarction/ Infection


Lifestyle: taken too much salt


Upregulation of CO: pregnancy, hyperthyroidism


Renal failure


Embolism: pulmonary
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ST elevation causes in ECG

ELEVATION 





Electrolytes

LBBB


Early repolarization


Ventricular hypertrophy


Aneurysm


Treatment (eg pericardiocentesis)


Injury (AMI, contusion)


Osborne waves (hypothermia)


Non-occlusive vasospasm
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Pericarditis: Causes

CARDIAC RIND 


Collagen vascular disease

Aortic aneurysm


Radiation


Drugs (such as hydralazine)


Infections


Acute renal failure


Cardiac infarction


Rheumatic fever


Injury


Neoplasms


Dressler's syndrome
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Fanconis anemia

FANCONIS


F facial microcephaly

A abnormal testis n kidneys


N neutropenia


C cafe au lait 


O ocular abnormality


N no thumbs n radius


I increased risk of AML 


S skin abnormality
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Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Causes of upper lobe fibrosis

SCAR




S- Sarcoidosis

C- Coal workers pneumonconiosis


A- Ankolysing Spndolitis


R- Radiation




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Pin point pupils

3P 


organPhosphorus poisoning

Pontine haemorrhage


oPium poisoning
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ACUTE PANCREATITIS

GET SMASHED 





Gall stone

Ethanol

Trauma

Steroid


Mumps

Autoimmunenodosa, ascaris infection

Scorpionvenom


Hypertriglyceridemia (hyperchylomicronaemia, hypercalcaemia)

ERCP 


Drugs ( azathioprime, mesalazine, bendroflumethiazide, frusemide, sodium valproate ) Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Causes of moderate splenomegaly

SPLEEN 


Subacute bacterial endocarditis

Portal hypertension


Lupus and other autoimmune


EBV + other viruses (HIV, CMV)


Endemic fever (typhoid) and typhus


Non-treponemal spirochaetes (leptospirosis, borreliosis), syphilis, and trypanosomiasis (a bit of a weak grouping I know, but they look vaguely similar!)
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Causes of massive splenomegaly

MASSIVE 


Myelofibrosis/myeloproliferative (CML, PRV)/CLL

Amyloidosis + other infiltrative (Gaucher's, sarcoid)


Splenic hydatid cyst


Schistosomiasis


Immune haemolysis/other haemolysis/haemoglobinopathies


Visceral Leishmaniasis


Endemic malaria (hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly)
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Neurofibromatosis type 1

VON RECKLINGHAUSEN has 17 letters 

So chromosome 17
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TB- Conditions favoring reactivation

CM Hates HIS MD 


Chronic renal failure

Malnutrition


HIV infection


Hemophilia


Immunosuppression


Silicosis


Malignancies


Diabetes
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ARDS Aetiology

Narcotic SIDED PAM 






Narcotics

Shock


Inhalation- ammonia, chlorine smoke


Drugs- Barbiturates, thiazides


Emboli- fat, air, amniotic fluid


DIC


Pulmonary infection


Aspiration- water, vomitus


Misc- acute pancreatitis, trauma, sle, raised ICP




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Causes of Transudative plural fluid

Super Nova is Pulling My congested Cirrhotic Liver 




Superier vana caval syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome


Pul. emboli


Myxedema


CCF(MC)


Cirrosis liver
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Anaphylaxis treatments

ACH{ACETYLCHONE} 




A-ADRENALINE[O.5MG IM]
C-CHLORPHENAMINE[0.5 times20=10mg iv]
H-HYDROCORTISONE[10times20=200mg iv]

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Monday, November 29, 2010

UMN LMN Lesions

UMN lesion - WISE 


W Weakness

I Increased tendon reflexes


S Spasticity


E Extensor plantar response



LMN lesion -  "World Federation of Waste Land Hikers"

Weakness

Fasciculation


Wasting


Loss/diminished reflexes


Hypotonia
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Causes of splenomegaly

CHICAGO

Causes of splenomegaly: Cancer 

Haematological malignancy 

Infection 

Congestion (portal hypertension) 

Autoimmune 

Glycogen storage disease 

Other (amyloidosis) Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

SLE Criteria

SOAP BRAIN MD

( 4 or more of the 11 required for diagnosis )


Serositis

Oral ulcers


Arthritis: non- erosive, peripheral polyarthritis


Photophobia


Blood dyscrasias: haemolytic anaemia, picture of bone marrow suppression


Renal involvement: proteinuria, red cell casts


ANA positive


Immunological abnormalities: anti- DNA,anti-Sm, Anti- phopholipid ab


Neurological involvement

Malar rash


Discoid rash



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HORNER'S SYNDROME

MAPLE

M : MIOSIS

A : ANHIDROSIS


P : PTOSIS


L : LOSS OF CILIOSPINAL REFLEX.


E : ENOPHTHALMOS
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HYPOGLYCEMIC DRUGS

ISSPR ( Pak. Army's) 


I: Insulin

S: Sulphonylureases


S: Salicylates


P: Propranolol


R: Sodium valpRoate


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Hyperglycemic Drugs

BITE CD 



B: Beta-2 agonists


I: Iron


T: Theophylline


E: Caffeine


C: Corticosteroids

D: Diuretics (thiazide)

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Wernicke's triad

COAT



Confusion

Opthalmoplegia

Ataxia due to

Thiamine deficiency Get Paid To Promote, Get Paid To Popup, Get Paid Display Banner

Aortic regurgitation - causes

CREAM




Congenital

Rheumatic damage


Endocarditis


Aortic dissection/ Aortic root dilatation


Marfan’s syndrome

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